ALLIANCE GOVERNMENT-DEMOCRACY IN DANGER
India got independent on 15th of August 1947. Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru came as a first prime minister of India. Nehru was from Indian National Congress, the most popular political party, then in India. Congress was successful to lead the government till time of Indira Gandhi government, but her govt. had criticized over issue of 1975-emergency and she had to left off government. Exclusion of Indira Gandhi turned politics of India towards non-congress government to create for first time in the history of Indian politics.
Process of formation of other political parties started with split of Congress party like formation of Janasangh by Syama Prasad Mokherji in 1951(later on Jansangh transformed to BJP in 1980). And most of the parties also came from social movements like AAP came from movement against corruption.
As Indira Gandhi lost majority in 1977 election the new government came as bunch of political parties allianced together to show a collective opposition to Congress government. This was the starting of formation of alliance government. Result of this govt. came in to highlight as government of Morariji Desai ,which crashed due to internal differences between parties in the alliance.
This bitter experience of alliance is carrying on till now. Experiences of Morariji govt. and challenges of alliance govt. followed many other non-congress govt. disabling them to not complete full time of five years till government of Atal Bihari Vajpayi in 1999. NDA(national democratic alliance) was the first successful non-Congress alliance government to complete full course of five years of government.
The failure of alliance government that began with Janata Party carried on with govt. of Chaudhary Charan Singh govt. crashed in 1980 and similarly 1989-Chandra Shekhar govt. ,1990-V.P. Singh govt. ,1996-Atal Bihari Vajpayi govt,1996-H.D.Devegoda and 1997-I.K.Gujral government. All these alliances was not successful to balance among their constituents parties.
It is not that the alliance only trouble in creation and crashes of governments. Alliance also influences important decisions of government, this is so harmful for a democratic system of any country. Constituent parties of any alliance keep on disturbing working of government and play major role in policy making for country. Also as almost every minor party is a regional party and support of every party is important for any major party. These regional parties work as blackmailer for govt. following so, government has to take decision favourable to them.
Alliance brings some controversies and criticism. Janata party government has to face internal party war, a big party side favouring Chaudhary Charan Singh cut-off itself from party and led to crash of Janata Party government. Charan Singh formed govt. but was not successful to stay till even a single session of parliament. These internal differences of different parties benefitted Congress party and Indira Gandhi won the elections. Alliance again came as govt. as Rajiv Gandhi criticized over Bofors Scam. Chandra Sekhar form the govt. but govt. crashed following the trend of alliance governments. V.P. Singh formed the new government, coming out of alliance opinions he applied recommendations of Mandal commission to allow 27% reservation to OBC category. This decision of government led to its end. Congress again came as single largest party in 1991 elections in leadership of P.V.Narasimha Rao. Alliance govt. again came in to existence as Janta Dal Secular, but has to bear the same problems as of previos government and new govt. formed within year. This time I.K.Gujral got pleasure to enjoy short time government as new alliance NDA(national democratic alliance) led to crash of government in 1998.
Story of alliance became interesting with NDA. AIADMK, JDU,DMK and other parties join this alliance to form government in 1998. Within one year this alliance also come down to elections in 1999 as AIADMK get off its hands from the alliance. But NDA made history by coming back to the govt. and BJP came as single largest party. Atal Bihari Vajpayi came as a prime minister for the third time and lead the govt. with a largest alliance to complete full course of five years for the first time in history of Indian politics as non-congress government. BJP was successful to balance with its supporting parties but has to face same problems as in previous governments of alliance. In 2004 elections,Congress came as an alliance UPA(united progressive alliance) and successfully beat NDA.
In UPA, congress first time has to came as an alliance due to decreasing credibility. Then congress totally depended on its supporting parties for government. Minister from DMK quota came under the charges of 2G spectrum scam. Congress also criticized as all decision taken under supervision of other ministry under ministers of congress. But Congress apologized only and blamed DMK minister A.Raja as a real culprit. In reality Congress was well known to scam but mute itself so as to protect alliance from split.
Congress came across real challenges of alliance in UPA-2 government. Supporting parties kept on threatening Congress to take off some important decision and policies. FDI in retail went in to cold bag, as TMC opposed it and decided to get off from UPA. Shri Lanka issue highlighted by DMK as it could dangerous to their vote bank in Tamilnadu and led to split of DMK from UPA recently. Now congress has totally depended on out-supporting parties SP and BSP. In return of support, Congress is protecting leaders of SP and BSP from CBI and corruption charges. Congress itself and its supporting parties have also protected from CBI as they are in rule in centre. But Congress is beware of SP and BSP, SP on one side demanding for special package for UP and on other side BSP is trying to pass ‘Reservation In Promotion Bill’ so as to get vote of SC and ST ,but Congress don’t want to let them successful in blackmail to them.
It has became a trend that regional parties and major party of alliance in rule of centre have been protected by the CBI and corruption. On the other hand parties of opposition has been encountered by CBI and leaders of these parties also jailed in the charges of corruption and criminal cases. As of now, speed of action of CBI is too slow against BSP chief Ms. Mayawati but on the other side INLD chief Mr. Om Prakash Chautala and some other minister of his government in Haryana have been jailed soon. Investigations did not trouble by any authority as the case was against a party supporting opposition party BJP. Some leaders of BJP also have been troubled by CBI as B.S.Yedurappa and Nitin Gadkari recenltly. As Congress in centre and using CBI in its favour. Soon government will change and BJP will use the CBI according to its policy.
It is not that the alliance only a problem for a party in the rule, but it also trouble alliance out of rule. Current conditions of NDA satisfy so. Here BJP wanted to project Modi as a PM candidate but JDU kept on criticism of Modi as an un-secular and Hindu dominating leader and will effect the their Muslim vote in Bihar. This stand of JDU came as a big problem for BJP so as to protect NDA from split. But opinion and point of view of JDU about Modi finally led to split of NDA. How crucial it is for BJP that they have to ignore mass appeal of Modi so to fulfill his supporters wish.
After all discussion so far on alliance, we can conclude that alliance bring some challenges and problems for major ruling party. Following these challenges and problems, government has to ignore need of citizens and they face mental disturbances from supporting parties. I can only suggest that our constitution might have accept two party system like USA, so that we could have clean and healthy politics to improve unbalanced system of our country. Government of India can still amend the political parties system by bringing a bill. But every party have to agree on this issue, nevertheless it is the job of govt. how they convince those parties. We need a clean politics in India not a crowded political parties having different opinions and want to run system according to them.